Monitoring of viral diseases of vegetable
【摘要】：正Vegetable crops are important for population's nutrition and food security of the Central Asia region.Along with increasing of population there is a sharp problem of increasing vegetable production. However,the yield of vegetable crops is low along of some reasons.One of the main problem is to infect of almost all vegetable crops by bacterial,fungi and virus diseases.They significantly decrease yield,quality and keeping of vegetables. The climatic conditions of Uzbekistan make advantages of spreading of disease.Warm winter,wet spring and stable circulation of virus in“plant-transmitter of diseases-reserves-plant”system are the main reasons of spreading of virus diseases. Preceding researches showed that almost all agricultural crops are infected by virus and in many cases one crop simultaneously is infected by several viruses.For example,cruciferous plants are infected by viruses of turnip mosaic,radish mosaic,cauliflower mosaic and cucumber mosaic virus.However,majority economic important vegetable crops for the region are not studied on their infecting by diseases. For study virus diseases on vegetable crops,such as tomato,pepper and eggplant we have conducted route observations on fields in Tashkent region in 2005-2006.The results of visual observation showed, that vegetable crops have symptoms by viruses,such as;mosaic,chlorosis and deformation of leaves. We conducted diagnosis of viruses using the method of indicator plants and RT-PCR.RT-PCR analyses showed that several viruses infect vegetable plants in Tashkent region.Tomato is infected by Tomato Mosaic Virus(tobamovirus)and Potato Virus Y(potyvirus),pepper is infected by Cucumber Mosaic Virus(cucumovirus),pumpkin is infected by watermelon mosaic virus. However,Tomato Chlorosis Virus(crinivirus),Tomato Infectious Chlorosis Virus,Chilli Veinal Mottle Virus,Pepper Mild Mottle Virus(tobamovirus),Watermelon Silver Mottle Virus are not identified. Tomato Mosaic Virus is dominant virus and widely spread.