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Development and validation of a group-based emotion scale for community residents and university students

Yang Xiaojuan  Wang Xinqiang  Liu Jianping  Lai Songhai  Mei Yun  
【摘要】:Group-based emotions(GE) refer to feelings and relatively stable affect experienced by individuals within a group context. Studies explicitly focusing on measures of GE are scarce. The present study sought to develop and validate a group-based emotion scale(GES) designed for community residents and university students. Using a systematic scale development process, the present study included both literature searches and focus group discussions to generate an item pool. Item, correlation, and factor analyses, along with additional methods, were employed to test scale validity and reliability. In our research, we use two samples for study: sample 1(N_1=1408) was examined using the GES-39(as well as the GES-20), the Present Social Attitude Scale, the Future Social Expectations Scale, the social well-being(SWB) Scale, and the general information questionnaire. Sample 2(N_2=607) was examined using the GES-20, PANAS, and general information questionnaire. Results revealed that the GES conformed to a bifactor model that comprised group-based positive emotion(GPE) and group-based negative emotion(GNE) scales. Internal consistency on the GES-20 revealed that for Sample 1, the full-scale Cronbach's α was.83(p .001). The GPE scale had a Cronbach's α =.94(p .001), whereas the GNE had a Cronbach's α =.93(p .001). In Sample 2, the full-scale Cronbach's α was.83(p .001); the GPE scale had a Cronbach's α =.94(p .001), whereas the GNE scale had a Cronbach's α =.89(p .001). According to results, GPE was positively associated with all SWB dimensions(rs =.24-.37), while GNE was negatively associated with all SWB dimensions(rs =-.39 to-.27). GPE was also positively associated with Positive Present Attitude and Positive Future Social Expectations(r =.22 and.33, respectively), and GNE was positively associated with Negative Present Attitude and Negative Future Social Expectations(r =.21 and.26, respectively), as well as negatively associated with Positive Present Attitude and Positive Future Social Expectations(r =-.38 and-.24, respectively). We matched GE and IE data from Sample 2 in order to analyze correlations between GE and IE. Results revealed that PA was positively associated with GPE(r =.57), NA was positively associated with GNE(r =.56), and GPE was negatively associated with GNE(r =-.15) and NA(r-.10). The correlated two-factor and bifactor models for the GPE-PA and GNE-NA were constructed, respectively. Results showed that both models fit the data well, but the bifactor model had a better structure than the correlated two-factor model. The present scale should better help predict group-based behaviors and facilitators of large-scale social change. Furthermore, the GES demonstrated satisfactory reliability and validity. Overall, the present results highlight important factors that underlie GE, providing a detailed scale for measuring GE within public institutions.

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