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Different strategies to properly manage the citrus huanglongbing in China

Shahzad Munir  Li Yongmei  He Pengfei  Wu Yixin  He Pengjie  Cui Wenyan  何月秋  
【摘要】:Huanglongbing(HLB) also known as citrus greening is one of the serious diseases spread all over citrus growing regions of the world.The causal agent is Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus,a phytopathogenic bacterium that can infect all Citrus cultivars.The causal agents of HLB have been putatively identified,and their transmission pathways and worldwide population structure have been extensively studied.However,very little isknown about the epidemiologic relationships of Ca.L.asiaticus,which has limited the scope of HLB research and especially the development of control strategies.HLB-affected plants produce damaged fruits and die within several years.Some candidate compounds show promise in eliminating or suppressing disease symptoms;however,others need to be evaluated in the form of antibiotics with less phytotoxicity.Furthermore,thermotherapy can be useful for combating HLB.The application of epibrassinolide reduces the causal agent of HLB and might provide a useful tool within an integrated management program.Water in oil(W/O) nanoemulsion formulation may provide a useful model for the effective delivery of chemical compounds into citrus phloem via a foliar spray for controlling HLB citrus disease.The production of transgenic plants with modified volatile profiles that are more tolerant to citrus greening disease can be helpful in reducing the disease incidence.Additionally,the potential impact on HLB should be conducted for discovering novel antibacterial compounds.More research is needed to provide an eco-friendly control strategy for HLB in the form of biocontrol.However,unfortunately,no study has reported the successful control of the disease by microbial control agents yet.Although HLBresistant citrus varieties are being developed,it will presumably take many years before they are commercialized.Therefore,alternative measures are being used to reduce the incidence of this disease or HLB pathogens in the field.So far,there are no curative methods to control this pathogen with absolute results.However,scientists have used a few control measures to eliminate or reduce the pathogen growth.Combining these control measures was reported to be more effective than either measure alone in controlling the disease.To control the disease,scientists have developed new compounds and screened existing compounds for their antibiotic and antimicrobial activities against the disease.These compounds,however,have very little or even no effect on the disease.The aim of the present review was to compile and compare different methods of HLB disease control with newly developed integrative strategies.In light of recent studies,we also describe how to control the vectors of this disease and the biological control of other citrus plant pathogens.This work could steer the attention of scientists towards integrative control strategies.It is expected that our laboratory would publish the control effect of our own bioagents soon.

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