Carbon nanotubes: A new approach for treatment drug addiction
【摘要】：Objective Drug addiction is still a serious public health problem, and so far, there is no effective pharmacotherapy available for treatment. It is well known that almost all addictive drugs increase extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, a critical brain region involved drug abuse and addiction. In theory, any strategy that can rapidly remove or clean up excessive extracellular dopamine produced by drugs of abuse would be possibly useful for treatment of drug abuse and addiction. The present study hypothesized that carbon nanomaterials — single-walled carbon nanotubes(SWNTs) might be useful for the treatment of drug addiction by rapidly adsorbing and oxidizing the extracellular dopamine produced by drugs of abuse. Methods Two types of SWNTs — individual SWNTs(i SWNTs) and aggregated SWNTs(a SWNTs) were synthesized and administrated to mice by intracerebroventricular(i.c.v.) microinjections(1-2 ng/each side). The behavioral tests for methamphetamine(METH)-induced awarding and psychostimulating effects were exhibited by self-administration, locomotion and conditioned place preference(CPP). Effects of SWNTs and METH on extracellular dopamine, dopamine oxidation were demonstrated by microdialysis and electrochemical measurements. The neurochemical effects of SWNTs were examined by Western blots, immunohistochemistry, bio-TEM, ELISA assays, etc. Results We found that a SWNTs not only blocked METH-induced robust increase in extracellular DA in the striatum, but also blocked METH self-administration, METH-induced CPP and METH-or cueinduced relapse to drug-seeking behavior. Strikingly, such a nanogram range of drug amount, did not produce any detectable neural toxicity or other unwanted side-effects. These findings, for the first time, suggest that a special carbon nanomaterial may be used as a nanomedicine for the treatment of methamphetamine or other psychostimulant addiction. Conclusion a SWNTs can antagonize the behavioral and neurochemical effects of methamphetamine(METH), possibly the most potent psychostimulant and dopamine releaser.