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The Urban-cluster Heat Island Effect during the 2013 record-setting heat wave in Yangtze River Delta,China

Yue Ma  Ping Liang  Xuchao Yang  Jinhai He  Jun Lv  
【摘要】:The rapid urbanization in the past decades contributes to the growing Urban Heat Island(UHI) effect in the Yangtze River Delta(YRD).However,the UHI effect and its variations in the YRD under extreme HW are unclear yet.During July and August 2013,a record-setting heat wave(HW) struck the Central-East China including the YRD.A dense network of automatic meteorological sites are used to assess the UHI effect and its variations in the YRD during the 2013 record-breaking HW,by contrasting the moving spatial anomaly(MSA) of temperature in urban and rural sites derived from the spatial filter method.Furthermore,using the surface flux data collected by two flux towers in Shanghai,along with the ERA-Interim reanalysis data,the possible mechanisms behind the UHI variations during the HW are discussed.With the objective site classifications based on remote sensing nighttime light products,a total of 490 sites that mainly located in the zigzag-shape urban cluster are considered as urban sites,and the remaining 1779 sites are taken as rural sites.It is found the temperature distribution differs in urban and rural sites.The probability distributions of urban temperature are narrower and skewed towards higher value than rural temperature,especially in the HW nighttime.Determined by the urban-rural differences in the MSA of temperature,the UHI intensities of the YRD urban cluster are evaluated to be 0.7~0.8℃during the 2013 unusual HW,with higher values in the nighttime(0.8~1.2℃) than daytime(0.1~0.2 ℃).The areas with strong UHI are mainly located in the zigzag-shape urban cluster.Compared with non-HW conditions,the UHI effect is enhanced during the HW.The nighttime UHI intensity under the HW conditions is 0.13~0.27℃ higher than that under normal conditions,and the strong UHI areas are expanded from the zigzag-shape urban cluster to outskirts.The analysis based on the surface energy flux derived from observation and reanalysis products show good agreements,suggesting the urban-rural divergence in the response of surface energy balance(SEB) to HW,owing to the different underlying properties between urban and rural surfaces,is one of the important factors in UHI enhancement.The increased net radiation during the HW is converted to more sensible heat flux and heat storage in the urban areas,while more latent heat flux in the rural areas.Thus,the urban-rural SEB divergence is further enlarged,which may contribute to the enhancement of UHI during the HW.

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