A Spatial-Temporal Projection Model for 10-30 Day Rainfall Forecast in South China
【摘要】：Extended-range(10-30 day) forecast, lying between well-developed short-range weather and long-range(monthly and seasonal) climate predictions, is one of the most challenging forecast currently faced by operational meteorological centers around the world. In this study, a set of spatial-temporal projection(STP) models was developed to predict low-frequency rainfall events at lead times of 5-30 days. We focused on early monsoon rainy season(mid April to mid July) in South China. To ensure that the model developed can be used for real-time forecast, a non-filtering method was developed to extract the low-frequency atmospheric signals of 10-60 days without using a band-pass filter. The empirical models were built based on 12-yr(1996-2007) data, and independent forecast was then conducted for a 5-yr(2008-2012) period. The assessment of the 5-year forecast of rainfall over South China indicates that the ensemble prediction of the STP models achieved a useful skill(with a temporal correlation coefficient exceeding 95% confidence level) at a lead time of 20 days. The amplitude error was generally less than one standard deviation at all lead times of 5-30 days. Furthermore, the STP models provided useful probabilistic forecasts with the ranked probability skill score between 0.3-0.5 up to 30-day forecast in advance. The evaluation demonstrated that the STP models exhibited useful 10-30 day forecast skills for real-time extended-range rainfall prediction in South China.