Weakening Trend in the Atmospheric Heat Source over the Tibetan Plateau during Recent Decades. Part Ⅱ: Connection with Climate Warming
【摘要】：In Part I the authors have shown that heating sources in spring over the Tibetan Plateau (TP), and in particular the sensible heat flux (SHF), exhibit a significant weakening trend since the mid-1980s that is induced mainly by decreased surface wind speed. The possible reason of such a change is further investigated in Part II by analyzing historical observations and the NCEP/Department of Energy (DOE) reanalysis. The steady declining trend in the surface wind speed over the TP after the 1970s arises mainly from the zonal component. Since the mean altitude of the TP is about 600 hPa and the surface flow is controlled by the East Asian subtropical westerly jet (EASWJ) for most parts of the year, the substantial tropospheric warming in the mid- and high latitudes to the north of the plateau results in a decrease of the meridional pressure gradient in the subtropics. As a result, the EASWJ and the surface winds over the TP are decelerated. Moreover, changes of the general circulation in the twentieth century simulated by 16 coupled climate models driven by natural and anthropogenic forcings are examined. Intercomparison results suggest that sulfate aerosol indirect effects and ozone may be important in reproducing the weakening trend in EASWJ. Although nearly half of the models can successfully reproduce the observed trends in the EASWJ during the last two decades, there is an obvious spread in simulation of the spatial patterns of twentieth-century tro-pospheric temperatures, suggesting significant room still exists for improvement of the current state-of-the-art coupled climate models.