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Nanowire based Electrochemical Devices for Energy Storage

【摘要】:Li-ion batteries for portable electronic devices and hybrid electric vehicles have gained great importance for energy storage today [1-3].However,how to prepare cathode materials with higher energy density,high potentials,and longer cycle life is still a challenge.Recently,oxide nanowire electrodes are found to have excellent cycling performance because they have higher surface area,shorter Li ion diffusion lengths,and facile strain relaxation upon electrochemical cycling [4-6].In the previous work,bulk materials made of nanowires were usually used as the battery electrodes.Although the electrochemical properties of these materials were improved,aggregation and disorder make the advantage of nanowires not prominent.Meanwhile,it is difficult to know whether fast capacity fading is due to intrinsic nature of nanowires or extrinsic reason such as the contact of nanowires,binders,and conductive additives.To understand intrinsic reason of capacity fading,we design the single nanowire electrochemical devices which may push the fundamental limits of the nanowire materials for energy storage applications [7].In this device,single vanadium oxide nanowire or single Si/a-Si core/shell nanowire was used as working electrode,and electrical transport of the single nanowire was recorded in situ to detect the evolution of the nanowire during charging and discharging.Our results show that conductivity of the nanowire electrode decreased reversibly (for vanadium oxide nanowire by shallow discharge/charge) or irreversibly (for vanadiumoxide nanowire by deep discharge/charge,or silicon nanowire) during the electrochemical reaction,which limits the cycle life of the devices.Based on the above conclusion,to improve the cycling performance of electrochemical devices,we used prelithiation to restrain the conductivity decrease of the electrode materials [8-9].Lithiated single MoO 3 nanowire device was achieved by secondary hydrothermal reaction followed by e-beam lithiography.The conductivity of a lithiated single MoO 3 nanowire (10-2 Scm-1) is increased by close to two orders of magnitudes compared to that of a non-lithiated MoO 3 nanowire (10-4 Scm-1).The lithiated MoO 3 nanowires exhibited excellent cycling capability,with a capacity retention rate of 92% after 15 cycles,while the non-lithiated nanowires retained only 60%.Therefore,lithiation is shown to be an effective technique for improving the cycling performance and stability of MoO 3 nanowires for applications in energy storage.It is expected that our study may extend effective and helpful methods in directions that will solve the challenge of property degradation in energy storage and open new applications.

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