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Population genetic structures of two ecologically distinct species Betula platyphylla and B. ermanii inferred based on nuclear and chloroplast DNA markers

Huaying Wang  Xiao Yin  Dongxu Yin  Lin Li  Hongxing Xiao  
【摘要】:Climatic oscillations during the last glacial maximum(LGM) significantly affected the distribution patterns and genetic structure of extant plants.Northeast China(NEC) is a major biodiversity center in East Asia,but no independent phylogeographic studies of cool-temperate deciduous tree species have been conducted in this area.We employed multiple chloroplast and nuclear markers to investigate the genetic structure of two ecologically contrasting species,Betula ermanii and B.platyphylla,in NEC.Our results showed that in the chloroplast genome,several haplotypes were identified in the B.ermanii populations.In the nuclear genome,we found that both species exhibited high levels of nucleotide diversity of the nuclear gene G3 PDH fragment and microsatellites.Population structure and phylogenetic analyses based on the chloroplast and nuclear markers confirmed the spatial genetic differentiation between the Daxing'anling Mountains and Changbai Mountains,suggesting these populations were recolonized from independent glacial refugia.High endemic species richness was also found in different flora of NEC.These attributes suggest that multiple glacial refugia existed in the NEC during the LGM,leading to the distinct genetic structures of the populations in the Daxing'anling Mountains and Changbai Mountains.

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