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Genetic dissection of wheat kernel hardness using conditional QTL mapping of kernel size and protein-related traits

Xiaoxiao Sun  Tongtong Liu  Kai Liu  Xixian Duan  Xuerong Wang  Qiaoling Wang  Yuling An  Xin Guan  Ji-Chun Tian  Jian-Sheng Chen  
【摘要】:Kernel hardness(KH) is one of the primary quality parameters for common wheat(Triticum aestivum L.),and it has a major impact on milling properties,flour quality,and end-product properties.In addition to Puroindoline(Pin) mutations and differences in Pin expression,other factors,such as new alleles,kernel size,and protein-related traits,play a noticeable role in determining hardness,but at the quantitative trait locus(QTL) level,the influence of these factors remains unclear.In the present study,genetic relationships between KH and kernel size traits and between KH and kernel protein-related traits were demonstrated by unconditional and conditional mapping using a wheat 90 K genotyping assay with a segregating population of 173 recombinant inbred lines(RILs) in four environments.Six additive QTLs for KH were detected using unconditional QTL mapping analysis;these QTLs were primarily distributed on chromosomes 4 B,5 B,and 6 D with phenotypic variation ranging from 5.28%to 17.73%.In addition,one pair of epistatic QTLs(QKH3 B.4-65/QKH4 B.6-2) was identified by unconditional mapping,and this pair accounted for 1.61%of the phenotypic variation.By conditional mapping after excluding the influences of kernel size,thirteen QTLs were discovered,and they accounted for 5.7-15.5%of the phenotypic variation.Of them,the stable QTL QKH4 B.4-17 exhibited the largest contribution,which was partially influenced by kernel length(KL),kernel thickness(KT),and dry gluten content(DGC).Furthermore,QKH4 B.4-17 was crucially affected by kernel width(KW),kernel diameter(KD),kernel protein content(KPC),and wet gluten content(WGC) and was independent of sedimentation volume(SV) and gluten index(GI).Another major QTL,QKH5 B.10-63,was independent o f KW and KT;it was affected in part by the variation of KL,kernel diameter(KD),DGC,and WGC,and it was completely affected by the KPC,SV,and GI.Nine additional QTLs were only detected in the conditional analysis and were affected entirely by kernel size or kernel protein-related traits.The results demonstrated that kernel size and kernel protein-related traits play significant roles in determining KH.The present study could increase the understanding of the relationships between KH and kernel size and protein-related traits at the QTL level

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