Africa:50 Years After Independence and Today’s Challenges
【摘要】：This paper will consider the developments in Africa in post-colonial period, especially in the 21 st century. It will try to show that although African countries initially took different ways of socio-economic development, by 1990s practically all of them led to unsatisfactory results. However the steps taken at that time under outside influence or even pressure hardly improved the political and economic situation on the continent. The attention will be paid to a more recent Africa's responses to the challenges of globalisation, such as the formation of the African Union and adoption of the New Partnership for Africa's Development programme. The paper will analyse several cases of civil conflicts and wars in Africa, their internal and external causes and the efforts to stop them. Africa's position on major international issues will be discussed as well, in particular the attitude towards the reform of the UN, formation of new global groupings such as G-20 and BRICS, the war in Iraq and above all foreign interference in the conflict in Libya.