【摘要】：International higher education and research have experienced unprecedented pressures and turbulence over the past three years. These pressures, accentuated by the effects of the global financial crisis, have had different impact in different countries. Reductions in public funding and changes in the resource base have resulted in a focus on core issues and values, and the development of strategies to build for the future needs in research and education according to the ambitions and capacities of leading universities. The significant challenges faced by universities in their national, regional and international engagement require a careful evaluation of tradition, modernity, transition and transformation. Definitions are hard to agree, but globalisation may be seen as the factors that change the structural development of higher education in ways where there can be only limited control. In contrast, internationalisation is the way in which each institution or national system can plan to engage in managing globalisation to maximise strategic value and gain advantage for the future. In order to achieve as smooth an evolution as possible, it is essential to understand the distinct history and culture of education systems, based on traditions of acquiring knowledge, transferring knowledge, building intellectual and economic sustainability, and return on investment.