【摘要】：The Confucian Classics, sanctified by the imperial state throughout post-Qin (221-206 BC) empires, praised the ancient fengjian system, a confederation of 'one thousand eight hundred' self-governing states under the leadership of a limited kingship, as the foundation of the sage kings' good governance. Juxtaposed to the centralized bureaucratic system of later empires, the Confucian praise of the fengjian system implied a radical denunciation of the later imperial government. Political thinkers who led this discourse shared the vision of a decentralized rule by many based on self-governing local communities. What implications does this model hold in Chinese politics today? As the discourse of "Confucianism" is newly on the rise in mainland China, this study will interpret the long-standing ideal of fengjian as a political theory that might be relevant to the issue of governance in China today.