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《中国心理卫生协会残疾人心理卫生分会第十二届年会暨中国残疾人康复协会精神残疾康复专业委员会第二届研讨会会议手册》2018年
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国际难民在美国中西部社区安置的计划方案和经验分享(英文)

郭凤宜  Kit Sinclair  Kelly L.VanKoevering  
【摘要】:Human displacement produces barriers and a sense of loss that affect persons' capacity to participate in meaningful occupations.This presentation will discuss challenges faced by human displacement,and explore professional's role in working with refugees to support their self-efficacy and community integration.Learning objectives:At the conclusion of this presentation,participants will be able to Understand challenges faced by human displacement and the barriers which restrict the rights of displaced persons to meaningful community participation,including loss of valued roles,barriers to education,employment,healthcare,social support,cultural adaptation and transportation;Describe how occupational therapists can be involved at all stages of community integration for persons displaced by disaster,war or conflict;and Explore the models to guide changes in social participation and self-efficacy through the perspectives of public health and empowerment.People may be displaced from their homes and communities by disaster,war or conflict.They often experience psychological,social and physical trauma as well as separation from the familiar.They may have witnessed violence,be living in poor condition in temporary camps and feel incapable of moving forward in their lives.Displaced persons may have lost their past valued roles and may be unable to adjust to new situations where language and cultural barriers profoundly impact their functional participation in the new communities.The experience of displacement and resettlement produce barriers and a sense of loss that can negatively affect their self-efficacy and restrict their capacity to participate in meaningful occupations,including loss of valued roles,barriers to education,employment,healthcare,social support,cultural adaptation and transportation.Self-efficacy was defined by Bandura as one's own perception of his or her ability to make life choices and to perform purposeful actions that affect his or her own lives.Self-efficacy is evident in 1.) one's level of confidence in the ability to perform individual components of a task or 2.) one's ability to overcome barriers.Beliefs in personal efficacy can affect an individual's resilience to adversity.Therefore,high level of self-efficacy can play an essential role in overcoming the obstacles present through displaced persons' transition into their country of resettlement.Occupational therapists can play a valuable role in aiding displaced persons' transition into their new environment through empowering their resilience and rebuilding their capacity,roles,routines and self-efficacy.Another powerful role for occupational therapists to be involved while working with displaced persons is to support the development of a stronger social support network and develop community based programs which are strength-based,client-centered and context-specific.Integrating a variety of community supports has been shown to buffer the effects of isolation felt after migration has occurred.Through community based program development,occupational therapists collaborate with community leaders and stakeholders to empower members of the community to recognize their own potential through meaningful occupations.The absence of meaningful occupations,commonly referred to as occupational deprivation,which often occurred in the lives of displaced persons may result in loss of role identity.Participation in productive,meaningful occupations is an important component in establishing positive coping,personal control,and self-efficacy.In support of the US Department of Health and Human Services' Refugee Health Promotion and Disease Prevention(RHPDP) initiative entitled "Points of Wellness"(DHHS,2010),we will also present the development and implementation of a community based life skills training program for displaced persons.Models to guide changes in social participation and self-efficacy through the perspectives of public health and empowerment will be presented.Opportunities and strategies to collaborate with non-governmental organizations(NGOs)in support of displaced persons' self-efficacy,skill development and social support networks will be discussed.Through guided discussions,evidence-based resources and examples of community based programming,participants will recognize challenges faced by human displacement,understand needs and adaptations among refugees resettled in the United States,explore ways to empower displaced persons,and utilize strategies to help them deal with their personal and family trauma including those marginalized by gender,poverty,and disability.
【作者单位】:昆明长和天城康复医院
【分类号】:D771.2

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