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《第六届全国现代语音学学术会议论文集(上)》2003年
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The 6~(th) National Conference on Modern Phonetics, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin, October 18-20, 2003

徐雲揚  李蕙心  
【摘要】:正 The apical sounds in Beijing Mandarin (BM) may be a syllable-initial fricative,affricate,or approximant,or a vowel sound.In Karlgren (1915-1926),two types of the apical consonants were distinguished and they were represented with the symbols [s t th ts tsh] and [s z ts tsh]Two types of the apical vowels and were also distinguished.Most of these symbols representing the apical sounds in BM have been accepted as a convention in the Chinese linguistic community.After many decades,the symbols are appearing with no modifications in the widely circulated reference books,such as HFG (Hanyu Fangyan Gaiyao)汉语方言概要(1983) and HFZ (Hanyu Fangyin Zihui)汉语方音字汇(1989).Karlgren's descriptions of the articulatory gestures of the apical sounds in BM and the lexical words in which the sounds occurred are shown in the table below.Ascan be seen,while [s t th ts tsh] and represent the apical alveolar or dental stops,fricative,and affricates,[s z.ts tsh] and were described as being post-alveolar or pre-palatal.Chao (1948) adopted all these symbols,except [z] and,to represent the syllable-initial apical consonants in BM.However,Chao (1948) treated (i) [s t th ts tsh] all as dentals articulated with the tongue touching the back of the upper frontal incisors,and (ii) s ts tsh] as retroflexes "made with the tip of the tongue curled back against the roof of the mouth" (Chao,1948,p.20).As for [z],it was replaced with the symbol [r],as the sound was considered as an approximant rather than a voiced fricative.As for the apical vowels,was treated as a vocalized [z] after [s,ts,tsh] and a vocalized [r] after [s ts tsh].The difference between Karlgren (1915-1926) and Chao (1948) lies in some of the transcriptions they used as well as their descriptions of articulatory property of a number of the apical sounds.As Karlgren (1915-1926),Chao (1948),HFG (1983),or HFZ (1985) has not presented any articulatory data substantiating their descriptions of the articulatory nature of the apical sounds in BM and their choice of the symbols,an investigation to obtain objective data is called for.The present study investigates the articulatory properties of the apical sounds in BM by obtaining both palate-grams and linguagrams of the apical sounds in BM from native speakers of BM,using the method developed in Dart (1991).The results show that (a) the syllable-initial [t] in BM is apico-laminal denti-alveolar; (b) the syllable-initial [s ts] as well as the vowel in BM are apical dental or apical denti-alveolar; and (c) the syllable-initial [s ts] and [z] (or [r]) as well as the vowel in BM are all apical post-alveolar,rather than retroflex as described in Chao (1948) as none of these sounds was made with the tip of the tongue curled back against the roof of the mouth.Pictures of lip action were also taken in this study and the results show that while there is a slight spreading of lips during the production of h Hollowing[s ts] or [tsh],the lips are protruded when producing the syllables,such as 师,枝,吃,日。In conclusion,our articulatory data agree with the descriptions of the articulatory properties of the BM apical sounds in Karlgren (1915-1926),however,in this study the so-called apical vowels are treated as syllabic alveolar and post-alveolar approximants and [z] as a post-alveolar approximant In this paper,different IPA symbols are proposed to replace [s z.ts tsh] which are the IPA symbols representing retroflex sounds and which are non-IPA symbols.In our presentation,both palatograms and linguagrams of the BM apical sounds in question will be shown.[End]
【分类号】:H018

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