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The rice Yellow-Green Leaf 18 locus is essential for chlorophyll synthesis, plant growth and retrograde plastid-nuclear signaling

Zhaohai Wang  Xiao Hong  Keke Hu  Shiyun Du  Yang Li  Dandan Hu  Kexin Cheng  Yangsheng Li  
【摘要】:Chlorophyll synthesis from glutamyl-t RNA to chlorophyll b needs 15 steps of enzymatic reaction,and all 27 genes encoding these 15 enzymes have been identified in higher plants represented by Arabidopsis(Arabidopsis thaliana). However,only nine genes encoding six enzymes in chlorophyll synthesis pathway have been identified in rice(Oryza sativa). In this study,a spontaneous mutant,yellow-green leaf 18(ygl18),was isolated in rice(Oryza sativa). This mutant showed yellow-green leaf,decreased chlorophyll level,and clime-dependent growth difference. Map-based cloning of this mutant identified the YGL18 gene,and this gene has not yet been studied in rice. YGL18 is expressed in green tissues,especially in leaf,and it functions in chloroplast. Bioinformatic analysis showed that YGL18 encodes one of the key enzymes of the chlorophyll synthesis pathway. Multiple sequence alignment revealed that the amino-acid substitution of leucine(Leu) to phenylalanine(Phe) in ygl18 is originally conserved in different photosynthesis organisms. In-vitro enzymatic assays identified the YGL18 enzymatic activity,but ygl18 almost lost the enzymatic function. YGL18 plays important roles in light-dependent and photoperiod-regulated chlorophyll synthesis. Plastid-related nuclear genes were regulated in ygl18 leaves,and the majority of genes in the tetrapyrrole synthesis pathway were up-regulated,implying that there is a new model on retrograde plastid-nuclear signaling. Based on these findings,it is suggested that YGL18 plays essential roles in chlorophyll synthesis,plant growth and regulating plastid-nuclear signaling.

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