China's international trade and air pollution in the United States
【摘要】：China is the world's largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollutants, and measurable amounts of Chinese pollution are transported via the atmosphere to other countries, including the United States. However, a large fraction of Chinese emissions is due to manufacture of goods for foreign consumption. Here, we analyze the impacts of trade-related Chinese air pollutant emissions on the global atmospheric environment, linking an economic-emission analysis and atmospheric chemical transport modeling. We find that in 2006, 36% of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide, 27% of nitrogen oxides, 22% of carbon monoxide, and 17% of black carbon emitted in China were associated with production of goods for export. For each of these pollutants, about 21% of export-related Chinese emissions were attributed to China-to-US export. Atmospheric modeling shows that transport of the export-related Chinese pollution contributed 3–10% of annual mean surface sulfate concentrations and 0.5–1.5% of ozone over the western United States in 2006. This Chinese pollution also resulted in one extra day or more of noncompliance with the US ozone standard in 2006 over the Los Angeles area and many regions in the eastern United States. On a daily basis, the export-related Chinese pollution contributed, at a maximum, 12–24% of sulfate concentrations over the western United States. As the United States outsourced manufacturing to China, sulfate pollution in 2006 increased in the western United States but decreased in the eastern United States, reflecting the competing effect between enhanced transport of Chinese pollution and reduced US emissions. Our findings are relevant to international efforts to reduce transboundary air pollution.
【作者单位】：Laboratory for Climate and Ocean-Atmosphere Studies, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, School of Physics, Peking University Department of Earth System Science, University of California Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling, Center for Earth System Science, Tsinghua University State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University Collaborative Innovation Center for Regional Environmental Quality Argonne National Laboratory Department of Atmospheric Sciences, School of Earth, Society, and Environment, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 water leeds, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds 【基金】：supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, Grants 41175127, 41005078, 41222036, 21221004, 41328008, and J1103404
supported by the Tsinghua University Initiative Research Program (2011Z01026) 【分类号】：