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Microstructural characteristics and gas-bearing of the Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation shale,Southern Songliao Basin

Ge Mingna  Ren Shoumai  Bao Shujing  Zhou Zhi  Xu Qiufeng  
【摘要】:Southern Songliao basin consists of four A structural units from west to east: western slopes,southwest uplift,central depression and southeast uplift.Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation shale sedimented in large-scale invasion of the lake,with a quick settlement,super fast filling compensation deposition characteristics and widely deposition of organic-rich,thick black shale interbeddedoil shale,which is the most important source rocks of Songliao basin.The main organic matter types of Qingshankouformation shale areⅠ and Ⅱ1,Low maturity and Ro is between 0.4 to 1.5%,Shale mainly consists of quartz,feldspar,carbonate,pyrite,clay minerals and clay mineral content greater than 45%.Shale micro pores and cracks are usually free gas reservoir space,And the organic matter and clay mineral particles surface is usually gas adsorption.Currently,the technology research on Microstructural are mainly :Imaging pore systems with SEM on ion-milled samples,TEM,3D pore system renditions with focused ion beam(FIB) – SEM,Pore sizes with BET analysis and Pore throat size with Hg-injection analysis.To research the characteristics and shale oil and gas geological significance of micro pores,this paper uses focused ion beam(FIB) – SEM to characterize shale from the first memberof the Upper Cretaceous Qingshankouformation in the south of Songliao Basin,To Intuitively obtain the spatial distribution of shale Microstructural and organic matter,And measurecomposition of mineral samples for qualitative-semi-quantitative determination through elementsspectroscopy(figure2).The measurement results show that there are three major pore types in the shale,including interparticle,organic,and matrix intercrystal pores(figure1).Intergranular porosity holes,mostly present in the pores between the particles of inorganic minerals or pores between pyrite aggregates and particles of clay minerals with pore size of 0.1 ~ 2.0μm and preferably connectivity.Since Qingshankou shale maturity is low,mostly organic matter pores among organic matter clumps with pore size of 0.1 ~ 0.8μm irregular strip,belonging organic primary porosity and few nearly circular pores,a pore size of 0.5 ~ 1.5μm,which no communication between the pores.matrixintercrystal poresclay minerals,mostly amongclay mineral sheets or aggregates,which this section of the pore is widely distributedin thefirst memberof the Qingshankou Formationsince the high content of clay minerals.In addition,there are a mass of micro-fractures of micron-submicron(nano-)scale,including organic and inorganic mineral edge,filled calcium and clay minerals interlayer fractures.North America has successful experience in shale oil and gas exploration and development,Shale oil and gas development in six main regions:Marcellus,Haynesville,Barnett,Bakken,Eagle Ford and Permian Basin.Marine shale formations in North America with micro-pore types,Marcellus,Barnett and Haynesville are shale gas main producing formations.Marcellusand Barnett shale porosity mainly grow organic matter pore,which porosity-rich,approximately circular or oval and honeycomb distribution;Haynesville organic pores smaller or no growth,as the clay mineral content 70%,which is the first memberof the Qingshankou Formation shale is similar.Bakken and Eagle Ford shale as the main shale oil formations,shale pores mainly includeinterparticle,organic,and matrix intercrystal pores.which is similar to the research formation.Shale porosity is extremely rich of Lower Paleozoic Longmaxi Formation in Southern China marine,which approximately circular or oval and honeycomb distribution and preferably connectivity.Preferably similar between Marcellus,Barnett and Lower Paleozoic Longmaxiformation in Southern China marine porosity,the large difference between Qingshankou formation.As the important reservoir space,Shale microporosity and micro-cracks have a closed relationship with the oil and gas-bearing,which this is perhaps the one of thereasons for shale gas-bearing difference between southern Songliao Basin Qingshankouformation represented the northern and North America,South China marine shale.Therefore,the study for Micro pores and micro-cracks in the structure,distribution and connectivity is important reservoir characteristics.is important for the reservoir characteristicsand shale oil and gas resources.

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