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Initiation of the great Mw 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake

Don V Helmberger  Hiroo Kanamori  
【摘要】:正We determined the location,size,mechanism,and the frequency content of the first 4.0 seconds of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake.Since the beginning of this earthquake is very small,we develop a comparative approach against a near-by reference earthquake,the master event.We first determined the water depth near the master event using the differential timing between the water phase pwP reflected from the air-water interface and the depth phase pP reflected from the water-crust interface.Then we located the master event using the well-known ocean bathymetry in the area.After calibrating teleseismic arrays(△=30°to 90°) at short periods for timing and amplitude with respect to the master event,we were able to determine the initiation of the main event.It began as a small(M_w = 4.9) thrust event located at 38.19°N,142.68°E at a depth of 21 km,and,a few seconds later, evolved into a slower extremely large slip event up-dip.

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