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《第二届现代化海洋牧场国际学术研讨会、中国水产学会渔业资源与环境专业委员会2018年学术年会论文集》2018年
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Evaluating marine stock enhancement and ranching programs

Kai Lorenzen  
【摘要】:Marine stock enhancements and ranching programs involve the stocking of hatchery-reared fish into open waters,with the intent of increasing the abundance of wild fish stocks(stock enhancement) or create stocks of harvestable organisms that do not recruit naturally(ranching).Stock enhancement and ranching programs have been conducted for over 100 years and are expanding rapidly in some regions,including China.Such programs can be effective in principle,given the right conditions and good program design,but in practice many programs are likely to be ineffective and some may be damaging to fisheries overall.Common reasons for ineffective or damaging programs include poor survival of hatchery-reared fish in natural ecosystems,compensatory population dynamics responses to stocking that may reduce or negate overall effects on abundance and negatively impact on wild stocks,and genetic interactions that may affect the fitness of wild stocks.Rigorous quantitative evaluation is key to developing effective programs where the conditions are right,and to avoiding ineffective of damaging programs.Rigorous evaluation of stock enhancement and ranching programs requires a good understanding of fish population dynamics and the methods of quantitative fisheries assessment.However,in order to allow analysis of stock enhancement and ranching programs,these methods must be extended to consider additional size-and density-dependent population processes and biological differences and interactions between wild and hatchery-reared fish.We now have a good quantitative understanding of these processes,and population dynamics models have become powerful tool for the evaluation of stock enhancement programs at all stages of development,from early planning to full-scale operation.At early planning stages,such models can be used to evaluate the enhancement potential of candidate species based on existing biological and economic information,and to design experimental stocking and monitoring strategies.Input information at this stage may be derived from quantitative assessments of the wild stock and from comparative empirical studies and meta-analyses.Well-designed stocking experiments with marked fish are crucial in subsequent stages of enhancement program development.Such experiments can provide very precise estimates of post-release growth and mortality parameters,allow separation of natural and fishing mortality rates,and establish the magnitude of compensatory mechanisms.Continued development of population and bio-economic models for the enhancement combined with suitable monitoring programs and regular performance reviews ensures that operations are optimized and that non-viable or damaging programs are modified or discontinued.Use of these evaluation methods is illustrated in several examples of planned and operational enhancements.

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