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《第二届现代化海洋牧场国际学术研讨会、中国水产学会渔业资源与环境专业委员会2018年学术年会论文集》2018年
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Artificial reefs in the Mediterranean

Gianna Fabi  Alessandra Spagnolo  Carmen Ferrà Vega  
【摘要】:The Mediterranean Sea is the largest and deepest enclosed sea on Earth covering 0.7% of the world's ocean area.It is one of the major reservoirs of marine and coastal biodiversity,with 17,000 species corresponding to the 7.5% of the world's marine fauna and 18% of its marine flora and 28% of endemic species.The basin is also subjected to a strong human pressure due to a high degree of urbanisation and tourism in the coastal areas and several activities such as shipping,gas and oil extraction,fishing,and aquaculture.In this contest ARs represent a tool for protecting sensitive habitats from fishing activities; restoring depleted habitats; enhancing biodiversity improving populations of aquatic organisms by providing shelter for juvenile and mature individuals as well as for adults during delicate life stages(e.g.,moulting season for crustaceans); enhancing professional fisheries; providing a mean to manage coastal activities and reduce conflicts and,more recently,developing recreational activities(e.g.,diving and recreational fishing).Establishment of ARs in the Mediterranean Sea is regulated by international,European,regional and national laws and a few guidelines have been produced at international and national level.Three hundred and fifty-three ARs have been deployed from 1960 s to present,most of them being realized in 1990 s and 2000 s.The highest concentration of ARs is located along the Spanish coast,followed by Italy,Turkey and France.Habitat protection and fisheries enhancement have been the most common goals,however the interest towards ARs for recreational activities(i.e.,diving and recreational fishing) has been increasing over the years with the aim of promoting sustainable coastal tourism and reducing the tourists' pressure on the natural habitats.Materials and modules also evolved over time with the aim of developing multi-functional infrastructures that protect the environment while allowing for a variety of economic activities by local stakeholders.

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