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To Better the Man: Education and Human Development in Modern Romania

Catalin TURLIUC  
【摘要】:It is an undisputable fact that the modernization process is intertwined with the new position acquired by individuals in the framework of societies and, indeed, whole humanity, during the Enlightenment period and the following three centuries. Change and an accentuated cinematic state of the world was at the very root of this new Modern Era in which knowledge and freedom were transformation's twinned preconditions and outcomes. Enlightenment with its central core, that is to say education and a new paideia model together with liberation raised individuals into a condition which offered the opportunity to better themselves and their world. Advancement in politics and government, in science and technology, in entrepreneurship and culture, in arts and philosophy, in every field of human endeavor originated at a new scale and dimension in the minds of better educated individuals. Human beings became the measure of all things. Reason was the motto of Enlightenment. Empiricism and the doctrine of natural rights(to life, liberty and property) were the main vectors for change as the Industrial Revolution provoked the greatest change of circumstances for what historian Joel Mokyr called "enlightened economy". The idea of perfectibility of man(which can be found nowadays in transhumanist approaches) persists to our days and that is the reason why "Enlightenment will be a living, vital work in progress, a continuing condition of possibility" as James MacGregor Burns put it. This giant wind of change originated in Western Europe swept in Central Eastern Europe beginning with the last decades of the 18-th Century. Among other nations which were caught in the whirlwind of transformations the Romanian one confronted the challenges of the modernization process through different means and policies, a better educated individual being an important one.Acquiring a better education was for the elites of that specific time an important goal not only for the future careers in a more bureaucratic state but also a mot d'ordre for an empowered person in all the venues of life. The greatest majority of Romanian intellectuals in the first part of the 19-th Century were educated in Western Europe and they became important agents of change in the Romanian society. Our paper trace and analyses how education, and from the middle of the 19-th Century, mass education contributed to the modernization process of the Romanian state. Also, I want to emphasize how the idea of a better human being was disseminated in the Romanian society and how persistent it became during the modern era. My paper will trace all the significant changes in Romanian education during the last 160 years in connection with the modernization process starting with the first step marked in 1864 when the Romanian Parliament introduced a law which stated that primary school is free of charge and compulsory. Beside this I shall underline how the idea of bettering the man evolved and was adopted in different social milieus across Romanian society. I shall answer such question as: Can one establish a straight connection between education and modernization process? Is there a feed-back relation? How and why the idea of the man perfectibility was generated and with what consequences in our society? How different political regimes understand and pursued modernization process in the last two centuries Romania in relation with education and the idea of a better man/citizen? My intention is to underline in my paper the possibility of achieving a heuristic model for this type of analysis. In conclusion I want to point out the most important features which connect the education modernization with Human development in Modern Romania as well as the importance of education in achieving the strategic goal of a "knowledge based society".

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