Development and evaluation of an Earth System Model with surface gravity waves
【摘要】：The critical role of oceanic surface waves in climate system is receiving more and more attention. We set up an Earth System Model(ESM), which is named as the First Institute of Oceanography-Earth System Model(FIO-ESM), composed of a coupled physical climate model and a coupled carbon cycle model. A surface wave model is introduced through including the non-breaking wave-induced vertical mixing into the ocean circulation model. Surface waves can improve the performance of climate model especially in the simulation of upper ocean mixed layer depth in the southern ocean. The FIO-ESM is employed to conduct Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5(CMIP5) experiments. The historical simulation of FIO-ESM's physical climate model for 1850-2005 shows that the simulated patterns of surface air temperature(SAT), rainfall, and El Nio–Southern Oscillation(ENSO) match those of the observations. Future projections under the four scenarios of RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0 and RCP8.5 are also conducted. The global averaged SAT in 2100 would be 3.92℃ higher than that in 2005 for the highest future emission scenario of RCP8.5. The historical simulation and the future prediction under RCP8.5 with global carbon cycle are also analyzed. Surface wave makes projected surface air temperature in RCP2.6 about 2℃ cooler in the Arctic area and 2℃ warmer in the southern ocean.