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《石河子大学2017年“一带一路”核心区创新驱动发展博士论坛医学分论坛论文汇编》2017年
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Identification of a Tibetan-Specific Mutation in the Hypoxic Gene EGLN1 and Its Contribution to High-Altitude Adaptation

Kun Xiangy  Ouzhuluobuy  Yi Pengy  Zhaohui Yang  Xiaoming Zhang  Chaoying Cui  Hui Zhang  Ming Li  Yanfeng Zhang  Bianba  Gonggalanzi  Basang  Ciwangsangbu  Tianyi Wu  Hua Chen  Hong Shi  Xuebin Qi  Bing Su  
【摘要】:Tibetans are well adapted to high-altitude hypoxic conditions, and in recent genome-wide scans, many candidate genes have been reported involved in the physiological response to hypoxic conditions. However, the limited sequence variations analyzed in previous studies would not be sufficient to identify causal mutations. Here we conducted resequencing of the entire genomic region(59.4 kb) of the hypoxic gene EGLN1(one of the top candidates from the genome-wide scans)in Tibetans and identified 185 sequence variations, including 13 novel variations(12 substitutions and 1 insertion or deletion). There is a nonsynonymous mutation(rs186996510, D4E) showing surprisingly deep divergence between Tibetans and lowlander populations(FST= 0.709 between Tibetans and Han Chinese). It is highly prevalent in Tibetans(70.9% on average) but extremely rare in Han Chinese, Japanese, Europeans, and Africans(0.56–2.27%), suggesting that it might be the causal mutation of EGLN1 contributing to high-altitude hypoxic adaptation. Neutrality test confirmed the signal of Darwinian positive selection on EGLN1 in Tibetans. Haplotype network analysis revealed a Tibetan-specific haplotype, which is absent in other world populations. The estimated selective intensity(0.029 for the C allele of rs186996510) puts EGLN1 among the known genes that have undergone the strongest selection in human populations,and the onset of selection was estimated to have started at the early Neolithic(~8,400 years ago). Finally, we detected a significant association between rs186996510 and hemoglobin levels in Tibetans, suggesting that EGLN1 contributes to the adaptively low hemoglobin level of Tibetans compared with acclimatized lowlanders at high altitude.

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