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Work Domain Analysis of Driving Information

Staffan Davidsson  Hkan Alm  Stewart Birell  Mark Young  
【摘要】:In order to drive in a safe and environmentally friendly manner a driver needs support on the skill based,rule based and knowledge based level(Rasmussen,1986).It can be argued that today's driver information mainly supports skill and rule based levels while the complex task of driving also needs support on the knowledge based level,e.g.problem solving.The aim of this study was to identify ways to support problem solving and decision making in a driving information context and to study gaps,overlaps,strong and weak relations between the driver information functions and the purpose of the functions.Work Domain Analysis(WDA)(Vicente,1999) was used to decompose the purpose of the driver information down to the component level.WDA is the first step of five in Cognitive Work Analysis(CWA).CWA belongs to the category of Ecological Interface Design that aims to aid the design of human centred interfaces and systems that support problem solving and decision making in complex socio-technical systems.The study was performed by researchers from Lule? University of Technology and Volvo Cars as well as members of a Driving information project.The study was limited to driver information systems in private cars which means that the main purpose of the systems was to support drivers'goals e.g.navigate or maintain speed but also being environment friendly,etc.It should also be mentioned that driver information not only was limited to information within the car.Before and after driving was also included.The WDA identified five functional purposes of driving information:To support safe,efficient,environment friendly,legal and enjoyable transportation.The "Functional purpose" was decomposed into "abstract functions" e.g.support choice of transportation,reduce energy exposure,improve friction,and maintain lateral and longitudinal distance.Further decomposition down to "physical form" showed several weak and some unexpected relations between the purpose and the system.For instance,one conclusion was that the relation between speedometer and safety was weak.The weak relations and the gaps then served as input for design implications.In the design implications part it was concluded that planning could be improved in comparison with today's systems by e.g.internet services and pre-and post-trip information.New features in the navigation system,such as route optimization based on safety or carbon footprint,could improve both safety and environmental friendliness.Feedback or Edutainment(Education by Entertainment) could also serve as a way to improve safety and green driving.A rather controversial and perhaps unrealistic suggestion is that a private car could provide statistics or data about safety,environmental friendliness or efficiency(Cost) for different types of transportation in order to make the choice of transportation optimized.Another,more general conclusion is that the decomposition also showed the importance for a designer to ask the question "why?" when designing a product.

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