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Abrupt changes in alpha decay systematics as a manifestation of collective nuclear modes

A.N.Andreyev  M.Huyse  R.J.Liotta  P.Van Duppen  R.Wyss  
【摘要】:正It is nearly a century ago that the Geiger-Nuttall law,which was to revolutionize physics by its implications,was formulated based onαdecay systematics[1].Indeed,its explanation by Gamow[2]and also by Gurney and Condon[3]required to accept the probabilistic interpretation of Quantum Mechanics.The Gamow theory reproduced the Geiger-Nuttall law nicely.One can assert that this is an effective theory,where concepts like"frequency of escape attempts"have to be introduced.Yet Gamow's theory is so successful that even today it is applied,with minor changes,in the studies of radioactive decays.One may then wonder why effective approaches have been so successful.The reason is that theα-particle formation probability usually varies from nucleus to nucleus much less than the penetrability.In the logarithm scale of the Geiger-Nuttall law the differences in the formation probabilities are usually small fluctuations along the straight lines predicted by that law for different isotopic chains.The importance of a proper treatment ofαdecay was attested by a recent calculation which shows that the different lines can be merged in a single line.One thus obtained a generalization of the Geiger-Nuttall law which holds for all isotopic chains and all cluster radioactivities[4,5]. In this universal decay law(UDL) the penetrability is still a dominant quantity.By using three free parameters only,one finds that all known ground-state to ground-state radioactive decays are explained rather well.This good agreement is a consequence of the smooth transition in the nuclear structure that is often found when going from a nucleus to its neighboring nuclei.This is also the reason why,e.g.,the BCS approximation works so well in many nuclear regions.

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