The etymology of Chinese yì 邑 'city' and yōng 邕 'moat'
【摘要】：正For the most part, the reconstructed Old Chinese [OC] nasal ending *-m (found in the two traditional OC rhyme groups Qīn 侵and Tán 谈) remained unchanged in Middle Chinese [MC]. However, it has long been recognized that a few syllables which in MC belong to the Dōng东rhyme and have consonant ending -ηwere derived from earlier forms in *-m. Only a handful of words are generally reconstructed this way, based primarily on Shījīng 诗经rhyming or xiéshēng 諧聲(phonetic series) evidence for coda *-m. In some cases there is further confirmation found in cognate or borrowed forms in other languages. All known cases of such syllables belonged to the OC Qīn 侵rhyme group. When the change from coda *-m to *-ηoccurred, these words effectively shifted from the Qīn 侵rhyme group to the Dōng 东rhyme group, and then developed regularly into the MC Dōng 东rhyme.