Precambrian key tectonic events and evolution of the North China craton
【摘要】：正The North China craton(NCC)is one of oldest cratons in the world,with crust up to c.3.8 Ga old,and has a complicated evolution.The main Early Precambrian geological events and key tectonic issues are as follows.(1)Old continental nuclei have been recognized in the NCC,and the oldest remnants of granitic gneiss and supracrustal rocks are 3.8 Ga old.The main crustal growth in the NCC took place at 2.9-2.7 Ga.The NCC can be divided into several microblocks,which are separated by Archaean greenstone belts that represent continental accretion surrounding the old continental nuclei.(2)By 2.5 Ga,the microblocks amalgamated to form a coherent craton by continent-continent,arc-continent or arc-arc collisions.The tectonic processes in Neoarchaean and modern times appear to differ more in degree than in principle. Extensive intrusion of K-granite sills and mafic dykes and regional upper amphibolite-to granulite -facies metamorphism occurred,and marked the beginning of cratonization in the NCC. Coeval ultramafic-mafic and syenitic dykes of c.2500 Ma in Eastern Hebei indicate that the NCC became a stable,thick and huge continent at the end of the Archaean,and probably was a part of the Neoarchaean supercontinent that has been suggested by previous studies.(3)In the period between 2500 and 2350 Ma,the NCC was tectonically inactive,but the development of a Palaeoproterozoic volcanic and granitic rocks occurred between 2300 and 1950 Ma.The volcanic -sedimentary rocks are termed Palaeoproterozoic mobile belts;these have a linear distribution, and were affected by strong folding and metamorphism at 1900-1850 Ma,and intruded by granites and pegmatites at 1850-1800 Ma.The Palaeoproterozoic mobile belts formed and evolved within the craton or continental margin(epicontinental geosyncline).Some 2.30-1.95 Ga rift-margin, passive continental margin deposits,analogous arc or back-arc assemblages,as well as HP and HT-UHT metamorphic complexes seem to be comparable with many in the late Phanerozoic orogenic belts.Regarding Palaeoproterozoic orogeny in other cratons,it is possible that a global Palaeoproterozoic orogenic event occurred,existed and resulted in the formation of a pre-Rodinian supercontinent at c.2.0-1.85 Ga.(4)In contrast,the c.1800 Ma event is an extension -migmatization event,which includes uplift of the lower crust of the NCC as a whole,the emplacement of mafic dyke swarms,continental rifting,and intrusion of an orogenic magmatic association.This event has been considered to be related to the break-up of the pre-Rodinian super-continent at 1.8 Ga,attributed to a Palaeoproterozoic plume.(5)As HP and HT-UHT metamorphic rocks occur widely in the NCC,their high pressure of 10-14 kbar has attracted attention from researchers,and several continental collisional models have been proposed. However,it is argued that these rocks have much higher geothermal gradient and much slower uplift rate than those in Phanerozoic orogenic belts.Moreover,HP and HT-UHT rocks commonly occur together and are not distributed in linear zones,suggesting that the geological and tectonic implications of these data should be reassessed.