Logic and Rhetoric in Philosophical Dialogue and Cultural Hermeneutics
【摘要】：Philosophical dialogue as genre has a time-honoured history. In classical and late antiquity,from the early Socratic dialogues of Plato,through writings of Plutarch,Cicero,Tacitus,to Saint Augustine's De Magistro and Contra Academicos,the genre had already undergone several mutations. It remained a dominant discourse from the Renaissance to the Enlightenment and was popular among such diverse writers as Castiglione,Galileo,More,Hobbes,Hume,Berkeley,Locke,Diderot,and Voltaire.Although philosophical dialogue is generally regarded as a "non-literary" genre or,as one writer puts it,"virtual theatre," it nonetheless is capable of displaying some fundamental features of language in social use. The genre has received special attention from hermeneuticians like Gadamer and language philosophers in the wake of Wittgenstein. Linguistics aside,three main approaches can be identified,respectively from the perspectives of pragmatics,logic,and rhetoric; and much light has been shed on such important issues as discursive subjectivity,power relation,and truth-claim. A similar genre,called "host and guest queries and answers" (zhuke wennan),can be found in Chinese philosophical discourse. Both the Great Debate over nameand substance in the Warring States Period and the later Buddhist Gongan are often represented in dramatic and dialogic form. Zhuangzi and Gongsun Longzi are two prominent examples. This project will enquire into the logical and rhetorical implications of philosophical dialogue. It will further enquire into the semiotics of culture,a mechanism of which,according to Juri Lotman,is dialogue.